The areas mainly affected by lesions in professionnal golf players, by order of frequency, are: left carpus (wrist), lumbar region (loins) and left hand.
These are usually caused by micro-traumas due to repetitive training. Men will normally suffer more from lumbar, carpal and left shoulder lesions, whereas women will suffer from left carpus, lumbar region and left hand. In amateur players, loins and elbows are the more frequently affected, followed by hands and wrists. These are usually produced by the lack of adequate technique and by over training.
We can find two groups of pathologies in the shoulder: those directly produced by golfing practice and those that come evident with the practice of sport in general. There are lesions affecting muscles and ligaments whereas others affect the components of the joint. There are also specific neurological lesions (on nerves).
Hands and wrists are exposed to quite considerable pressures and torques at the moment of impact of the golf club with the ball. This special situation can favour different lesions as the rupture or inflammation (tenosinovitis) of the abductor pollicis longus tendon, which function is straightening the thumb.Feet have also their chapter in golf-related lesions, whether due to walking or to the "battle" between foot and shoe.
Nowadays we have a wide range of therapeutic options for all these lesions, from conservative treatments (cryotherapy, laser, or electro-stimulation) to surgical options (semi-invasive, minimally invasive, arthroscopic or conventional surgical techniques).
The approach to such lesions has to be a team work (Orthopaedic-Trauma surgeons, physiotherapists, chiropractors ), as sportsmen / women have other complementary needs according to their particular features. Nevertheless, the old medical axiom "better to prevent than to cure" should be applied by following a specific check up protocol aimed to golf players.