This is a disease caused by urolites or stones. Calculi are formed in any place of the urinary tract but they are more common in the bladder. As well as this, urolitiasis can be produced by crystals. The calculi or the crystals irritate the urinary tract epithelium, causing alterations in it, blood in the urine and frequently pain.
Sometimes these calculi can stop partially or totally the passing of urine, thus making urination difficult and painful.
There are many causes:
- Age: It is more frequent in middle aged dogs.
- Sex: Roughly the same for either sex, but the urethral obstruction is more common in the male due to the longer and narrower urethra.
- Breed: Smaller breeds are more commonly affected, but there is a predisposition in Beagle, Dachshund, Cairn terrier, and Scottish terrier.
- Way of Living: Infrequent urination because animals stay at home for most of the time without exercise, or low consumption of water.
- Diet: High levels of minerals that contain: magnesium, phosphorus and calcium or high levels of proteins.
- Urinary tract infections: There are different types of calculi: fosfatum, oxalate, silicate, and cistina or combinations of these types.
- Symptoms: Blood in the urine, weakness, frequent urination.
- Treatment: If the urinary tract is obstructed, the first thing to do is correct the obstruction by emptying the bladder. We need a urine sample to discover the compositions of the calculi. Sometimes special antibiotics are enough and surgery of the bladder unnecessary.