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Role of Physical conditioning in Sports

Role of Physical conditioning in Sports

Physical conditioning in an integral part of training, perhaps the fundamental basis for other factors which, added together, determine the sportsman's capabilities.

Let's look at the following diagram:








Physical training is not all that is needed to succeed in a sport. There is a tendency to turn physical conditioning into a masochistic ritual that, far from strengthening the sportsman, it frequently disables him.
Training is a means to achieve maximum possible efficiency in competition. Optimum training is a process that takes years, many of which may coincide with the most critical and sensitive stages of development. Childhood and adolescence are, in this sense, critical stages that play a fundamental role in the potential capacity of training. It is at this point of growth that factors which determine sporting performance are reinforced. This explains both precocity and special skills some people display in sports. The misuse of these critical stages may lead to limited development of certain performance factors which can only be achieved later through disproportionate training efforts.


The various factors affecting sports performance may be grouped as follows:



Basic Physical Condition Genetic constitution acquired in childhood and general state of health
Physical conditioning Conditioning through general and specific physical exercises
Technical conditioning Work on sport's movements: striking the ball, riding
Mental skill Intellectual level: motor perceptive sharpness, reasoning 
Tactical skill Level of strategic understanding and its use
Emotional control Personality and psychological sociological nature
Aims in life Expectations: religion and grief control

Training is thus a very complex process and the sportsman will only achieve his maximum performance through harmony and coordination of all factors. It is essential to draw up a systematic long term plan defining the training objectives, contents and methods to be used, so as to attain a gradual improvement in performance.
Sports' training is considered today to be a specialization of sports medicine. Sporting activities are linked to medicine, being closely related not only to complementing work schedules but also to first aid, rehabilitation process and injury prevention.
The lack of muscle balance and coordination, tendon and ligament weakness, muscle and/or cardiovascular resistance, inadequate muscle hypertrophy, flexibility problems and inadequate corporal composure, are the main reasons for sports injuries attributable to an inadequate physical condition.

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