The most common bacteria involved in the infection is E.coli, which is found in 80% of cases - these infections are generally responsive to a wide range of antibiotics taken orally which have a rapid effect.
There is a wide range of factors involved between the various diseases of male and female:
In the female, because the urethra is anatomically short, it can facilitate the decent of organisms into the bladder; this occurs more often after sexual intercourse so causing infection and fastidious symptoms.
In the male there is a higher incidence of infection noticed in uncircumcised males as the mucus surface of the foreskin has a tendency to colonize the bacteria and so harbouring the infection. Zinc, that the prostrate secretes in a normal healthy male, can prevent infections and is a natural source of combat for the body.
Another factor causing infections in the bladder and the upper tract area is the presence of "vesico-urethral reflux", which means that some urine goes back up to the upper tract and causes infection. This disease needs particular medical inspection.
Diminished renal blood flow or "intrinsic" renal disease may cause bad infections due to the dysfunction of the kidney.
Symptoms are quite varied, as you can have irritant symptoms signifying frequent toilet use - the feeling of urgency and "disuria" (urine flow in drops not stream flow), also discomfort around the bladder area "suprapubic" with bloating is found to be a common aggravation. "Hematuria" (blood in the urine) and pain in the bladder area is also a common symptom.
Physical examination may illicit tenderness in the area however it is often not indicative to the doctor - from this the need for urine analysis is essential to make a correct diagnosis.
This would be performed by your doctor and through the laboratory the results can be quickly ready to show the doctor the various bacteria levels and degree of Hematuria, which will indicate the correct medicine to use. Infections respond well to therapy and the failure to respond suggests the resistance to the type of medicine used or in some cases there may be anatomical abnormalities which will need further investigation, for this your doctor will be aware so do not hesitate to approach with this matter.
Females who have more than 3 episodes of cystitis a year are considered candidates for "prophylaxis" (preventive medicine therapy). The medicine used in "prophylaxis" must eliminate the bacteria without causing resistance.
Today modern medicine allows doctors to use single dosage of medicines required with this system at particular times so as to be preventive to disease - contact your doctor for any queries about this.
Urinary tract diseases may seem a complicated issue but if you treat the infections as they arise then there is no need to worry - please consult your doctor with any possible symptoms.